Saturday, March 14, 2020
Heroism in three novels essays A hero could be defined as a human of exceptional quality who wins admiration by noble deeds, especially deeds of courage. This definition could fit all of the main characters from the novels read, however Chris Mc Candless? story could be argued. Some describe his journey as stupid and thoughtful less yet others can see how courageous he was, therefore viewing him as a hero. The other characters from the novels are obviously heroes without question. In Philip Pullman's The Golden Compass Lyra Belacqua, an 11-year-old girl raised by Scholars of Jordan College in Oxford England is extremely heroic. Lyra is not aware of her heroic behaviors or the importance she plays in saving the universe. Lyra is the subject of great prophecy in which she is destined to commit a fateful betrayal that will determine the future of all worlds. This fateful betrayal came towards the end of the novel. Lyra's heroic behaviors are displayed during and after she rescues children from Bolvangar. After the rescue, her and a long time friend Roger head north to fight armored bears to rescue her father Lord Asriel. While in captivity Lord Asriel constructs a bridge to another world, which requires the energy release in an intercision (separation from daemon) to cross it. Lyra offers to go through with this but her father could not sacrifice his own daughter so he chooses Roger and this is the great betrayal. Seeing Lyra does not realize her power and importance she is confused as to why she could not have gone through the intercision so Roger would not have to. She vows to get revenge and to discover the meanings of this new world. These events can be used to show the courageous deeds Lyra preformed therefore making her a hero. In John Marsden's Tomorrow When the War Began, Ellie the main narrative character displayed many acts of courage. One instance that sticks out is when after Ellie and her six friends return from camping inHell? and s...
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Communication Theories - Essay Example As Giles & Clair (1979: 17) note, "language is not a homogeneous, static system. It is multi-channeled, multi-variable and capable of vast modifications from context to context by the speaker, slight differences of which are often detected by listeners and afforded social significance." Given the fact that even the most trivial aspects of speech and pronunciation can take on crucial importance, it stands to reason that individuals, consciously or unconsciously, should, among other things, seek or eschew identification with others through language. There are several theories developed to model the process of communication between two or more individuals. One of these is the Communication Accommodation Theory. This theoretical perspective examines the underlying motivations and consequences of what happens when two speakers shift their communication styles. Communication Accommodation theorists argue that during communication, people will try to accommodate or adjust their style of speaking to others. This is done in two ways: divergence and convergence. Groups with strong ethnic or racial pride often use divergence to highlight group identity. Convergence occurs when there is a strong need for social approval, frequently from powerless individuals. Communication Accommodation Theory focuses on the role of conversations in our lives. It has been incorporated in a number of different studies. For instance, accommodation has been studied in the mass media, with families, with Chinese students, with the elderly, on the job, in interviews, and even with messages left on telephone answering machines. There is no doubt that the theory is heuristic. The theory is expansive enough to be very complete, and it has been supported by research from diverse authors. In addition, the theory's core processes of convergence and divergence make it relatively easy to understand, underscoring the simplicity of the theory. The strengths of the theory may be quite significant because the theory has elicited little scholarly criticism. Still, a few shortcomings of the theory merit attention. Judee Burgoon, Leesa Dillman, and Lesa Stern (1993), for example, question the convergence-divergence frame advanced by Giles. They believe that conversations are too complex to be reduced simply to these processes. They also challenge the notion that people's accommodation can be explained by just these two practices. For instance, what occurs if people both converge and diverge in conversations' Are there consequences for the speaker' The listener' What influence-if any-does race or ethnicity play in this simultaneous process' One might also question whether the theory relies too heavily on a rational way of communicating. That is, although the theory acknowledges conflict between communicators, it also rests on a reasonable standard of conflict. Perhaps you have been in conflicts that are downright nasty and with people who have no sense of reason. It appears that the theory ignores this possible dark side of communication. Accommodation theory or "interpersonal accommodation theory" has sprung from the awareness that speakers are not merely "incumbents" (Runciman, 1998) of roles imposed on
Monday, February 10, 2020
Democratic Theory - Essay Example Such a philosophy places a high value on the equality of individuals and would free people as far as possible from restraints not self-imposed. It insists that necessary restraints be imposed only by the consent of the majority and that they are conventional to the principle of equality. In Athens, the citizens participated directly in making their laws. The Greek system of government was perhaps closer to a true democracy or rule by the people than any other history. Their civilization was broken down to into small city-states, and all the men voted on all issues of government. It was almost a total democracy except for the fact that women and slaves were not considered citizens and were not allowed to vote. The Greek system of democracy was ruled by a body of nine elected officials whom they called archons. These men who were aristocrats lead the government and had supreme control over all of the decree and criminal accusations in Athens. Problems took place when aristocrats became jealous of one another and rivalries developed under the early stages of Athenian democracy. The democracy of Athens was used in many ways other than it was designed for. It was abused by many rulers of that time. They were concerned with their own personal growth and because of their greed and selfishness they made laws and codes that would benefit their own personal gain. Perhaps they didn't get everything quite right for their time and place but they got enough right and there was enough contract to change with changing circumstances so that their civilization with all its arts and sciences succeed for 200 years until events, in the form of Alexander the Great, overcame them. Democracy in Middle Ages Though democracy was not directly instituted in the Middle Ages, many democratic ideas were ubiquitous throughout the period. Because Christianity, which taught that men were created equal in the eyes of God, was deeply entrenched into the society of the middle ages, the democratic idea of equality was understood by many people. However, the middle ages utilized another form of government, which was developed during this period called feudalism. Feudalism stressed that all people have certain rights and developed a system of courts to defend these rights. From these courts came the modern day judicial branch of the American government along with many of the ideas such as king councils, assemblies and eventually parliamentary systems. Thomas Hobbes Theory One of Hobbes theory is the State of Nature. To establish these conclusions, Hobbes invites us to consider what life would be like in a state of nature, that is, a condition without government. Perhaps we would imagine that people might fare best in such a state, where each decides for himself how to act, and is judge, jury and executioner in his own case whenever disputes arise-- and that at any rate, this state is the appropriate baseline against which to judge the justifiability of political arrangements. Hobbes terms this situation "the condition of mere nature", a state of perfectly private judgment, in which there is no agency with recognized authority to arbitrate disputes and
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Red Hook district in New York Essay A view from the Bridge is a play set in the Red Hook district in New York. The main theme that this explores is the role of Masculinity in the household and its affects. This play is mainly structured around feud between virility and jealousy that divides a family. This play is also about the misunderstanding of feelings and thoughts and how they might lead to undesirable flaws in the human character and hostile conflict that end in miserable circumstances. Eddie, the protagonist is second generation Italian who has curtain views on masculinity, which cannot be ignored, be anyone or it will lead into a spiral anger and jealousy. Eddie has especially strong on views on how women should act and how they should act. A good example of this is given to the audience in the way that Eddie reaction to Catherine having a relationship with Rodolfo. When Eddie deals in Marco and Rodolfo he contradicts his views and feelings toward the community, in this Eddie also gets into a confrontation with Marco in which backing down would be a sign of weakness this lead in the end to his untimely demise. Eddie reacts with both anger and jealousy, which he tries to hide behind a shield of over-protectiveness, in which he tries to accuse Rodolfo of firstly trying to gain an American passport and then Eddie attacks Rodolfos masculinity, especially when he teaches Rodolfo how to fight (sarcastically). Eddie has obvious mixed feeling about Catherine so he feels jealous, but this does not only mean a bad thing considering that he is thinking that he is protecting her which shows his nobility in looking after the family, even though this does not condole his actions toward Rodolfo but this shows that Eddie cannot deal with his emotional side. Rodolfo and Marco arrive in America as illegal immigrants and stay at Eddies house because they are Beatrices cousins. Rodolfo then falls madly in love with Eddies niece Catherine who is also in love with him. This causes Eddie to feels challenged because Rodolfo is more virile and has a larger world of interests. This is in all respects a competition for Catherine and her affection. Another factor that makes Eddie distrust Rodolfo is that Rodolfo does not live up to Eddies views on masculinity. Rodolfo can cook, he is a tailor, he can sing, he likes films and Eddie feels that all this is feminine so he thinks that Rodolfo is gay the guy ain`t right. Due to Eddies distrust of Rodolfo scenes of tension take place such as the situation with when Catherine finally makes the decision to leave home so Eddie, because he cannot express his feelings toward Catherine and Rodolfo, kisses them. Both Marco and Rodolfo must speak with bad Italian accents. Rodolfo must have a weak confident voice that begs for attention.While Rodolfo cannot live up to Eddies rigorous standard on masculinity Marco can. Marco is both strong, as Mike says, hes a regular bull, and loyal to his family in both going to America to work for them and trusting his wife on her own. Marco is extremely loyal to his brother especially when he tells Eddie to back off when he lifts the chair while Eddie cannot. Eddie respect Marco and feels that Marco is a model to masculinity like himself. Marco just like Eddie has a sense of honor, which is explored in the play with the incident in which Marco spits into the face of Eddie. Marco does this because he feels that there has been an injustice done by Eddie in which Eddie tells the police of Marco and Rodolfo, but also in the irony of what Eddie said and promised to what he did. Marco and Rodolfo treatment of women is far different from Eddie. Rodolfo treat women, as his equal while Eddie does not. Rodolfo does not try to manipulate the women in the play instead he helps them, he does this by giving advice and being supportive like what he tells Catherine after she asks him to teach her to be independent. dont cry any more. Marco has great respect and admiration for his wife otherwise he would not have left her for a life in America all alone. Even though Eddie seems skeptical about her loyalty to Marco they count the kids and theres a couple extra, Marcos trust for his wife does not waver. In comparison to the brothers Eddie does all the opposite. First he has manipulated Catherine so much that she feels she has a duty toward him : Then why dont she be a women? If I was a wife I wouldÃ make a man happy instead of goin at him all the time.Ã A view from the bridge Act twoÃ Secondly Eddie does not even take into account what a woman has to say to him because he believes that he should be shown respect. When Beatrice tries to warn Eddie about his feelings but he practically hits her and storms off to get killed. Eddie. Eddie feels a sort of arrogance towards women like as if he is better due to his so-called superior masculine characteristics he also must speak in brutish manor without a care for an answer. Alfieri is the narrator of the play, he is also a lawyer which gains him a lot of respect in the area because he the symbol of the law of the land. Apart from narrating the play Alfieri plays a lead character in the play. When Eddie Carbone comes to ask for legal advice about how to handle Rodolfo, Alfieri notices, through Eddie expressing his feelings through actions, that the entire business is corrupt. Alfieri then tries to give advice to Eddie on how to find and deal with this problem. Due to the fact that Alfieri has challenged Eddies views which drives Eddie mad so Alfirei`s advice ignored. Alfieri then Tells Eddie not to phone the police but he is then also ignored. These cases show the audience that Alfieri is intellectually smart and knows when trouble is brewing. I feel that Arthur Miller Contrasts the views of masculinity that different men have and how they conflict. Miller does this by putting Rodolfo and Eddie into direct conflict. While Rodolfo can saw and sing which makes him gay in the eyes of Eddie, Eddie has no other skill other than being a laborer. Arthur Miller shows that if men like Eddie do not start to evolve they will die out. Miller explores this through the rivalry between Eddie and Rodolfo where Eddie loses his life ironically to the same laws he had set on masculinity while Rodolfo lives on. I feel that Miller set this play specifically for people who do not understand their feelings. As the root of all this rivalry and anguish is purely set the shoulders of a man (Eddie) who cannot understand his feelings for his niece.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Oedipus:Ã Guilt, Fate and PunishmentÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Sophocles' trilogy of Oedipus the King, Oedipus at Colonus, and Antigone is a powerful, tragic tale that examines the nature of human guilt, fate and punishment. Creon, Oedipus' uncle and brother-in-law, is the story's most dynamic character. His character experiences a drastic metamorphosis through the span of the three dramas. Creon's vision of a monarch's proper role, his concept of and respect for justice, as well as his respect for the design evolve considerably by the trilogy's tragic conclusion. In Oedipus the King (OK) , the audience is introduced to a Creon who seems to put loyalty to the king above all. He sympathizes with the tragic plight of King Oedipus and asserts no apparent ambition himself. His attitude toward the king is one of yielding and fulfilling reverence. Creon's notion of justice in OK stems directly from the divine. That which the gods have decreed must become law. It pains Creon to have Oedipus exiled, but he must do so as the gods have willed it. Creon's respect for divinity and prophecy seems to be his defining trait in OK. His attitude is one of unquestioning reverence. In Oedipus at Colonus (OC), one sees the beginning of Creon's decline. Creon has now come to occupy the throne that once belonged to Oedipus. It soon becomes apparent that his vision of the proper role of a king has changed to accommodate his new-found position. The emphasis shifts from that of a king who must rule wisely to one who must rule unyieldingly. The kingship becomes a selfserving instrument for Creon in his attempt to secure the return of Oedipus and the good fortune prophesied to accompany him. Creon's notion of justice is severely distorted in OC. He becomes monomaniacal - conducting his affairs with tyranny and belligerence. For example, he threatens to harm Oedipus' daughters if the blind beggar does not return to Thebes. His view of rightness and fairness is no longer in line with that of his subjects. In OC, Creon still retains some respect for divine prophecies. These have after all motivated his desire to return Oedipus to Thebes. Antigone reveals the ultimate extent to which Creon's character deteriorates. His transformation completes itself; he has become an unreasonable tyrant. Creon can no longer be called a king. He has become a despot.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Is the nuclear family universal? This essay will explore whether the nuclear family is in fact a universal sociological institution. The term Ã¢â¬Ëuniversal' means applicable to all cases, so, for this to be correct the nuclear family must be found in all families in every society. Nuclear family consist a husband and wife and one or more children, own or adopted, it is defined by Murdock and according to him, he believed that the nuclear family is Ã¢â¬Ëa universal social grouping. Ã¢â¬Ë Functionalist George Murdock suggested an idea of universality of the family as family is the basic and vital institution in all societies.He looked at 250 societies and found four the most significant functions of the family: sexual, economic, reproduction and socialization. These functions are essential and meet needs in all societies and institution who best fits in performing them is family. Murdock defined the family as social group characterized by common residence, consisting of adults o f both sexes and dependant children. There are statistics that suggest the diversity of families is developing, such as cohabiting, single-parent and reconstituted homosexual families. All evidences seem to prove that nuclear family is not the dominant type of family.However, living in a nuclear family is a phase that most people, as children and adults, go through in the course of their life. The Government seems to be more preferable to nuclear family, as the nuclear family can be a nurturing environment in which to raise children as long as there is love, time spent with children, emotional support, low stress, and a stable economic environment. So, although there is an increasing diversity of family, nuclear family is still universal. The nuclear family is promoted by politicians and media. For example, Labour policy Supporting Families (1998) suggested different ways of all types of families.However Labours also pointed out that preferred type will be nuclear. Media created Ã¢â ¬Ëcereal packet imageÃ¢â¬â¢ of the family where it was promoting ideal nuclear family. People being influenced by media and politicians start seeing other types of households undesirable or abnormal. However there is an opposing view to MurdockÃ¢â¬â¢s theory that goes against the idea of the nuclear family being universal. In 1959, Kathleen Gough provided a detailed insight of the Nayar society. This culture was mainly centred on the woman and known as a matrifocal family. In this society, when the woman reaches puberty, she is married to her Tali husband.This is a sacred and traditional marriage but although they are married by law the husband and wife have no obligations to each other, the woman is then allowed to take on up to 12 visiting Sandbanhan husbands who must come after tea and the stay the night and leave before breakfast the next morning. Husbands and wives didnÃ¢â¬â¢t form an economic unit. Also, husbands were not expected to maintain the wives and it was frown ed upon to do so. Moreover, he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t bond, look after or socialize with the children. Another opposing view of the universal nuclear family is the IK culture.This tribe lives in Africa were each member shows now emotional connection with one another. Family, to them, means very little and each member of that society fends for themselves, showing no maternal instincts. If a new baby shows signs of weakness and disability, it will be disowned into the wilderness. The same happens to an elderly member who has no Ã¢â¬ËpurposeÃ¢â¬â¢ in the society. The experience and lifestyle of the IK suggests that family life across the world is characterised by diversity. However, in the UK definitions are dominated by the nuclear family.However, there is a lot of support for MurdockÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of the universal nuclear family. One argument is that statistically, the female-headed family is not the norm either within black communities or in the societies in which they are set. Also, s ome sociologists believe that the mainstream model of the nuclear family is valued by blacks and regarded as the ideal. However, there are many opposing views to his theory. The supposed harmful effects on the children of the matrifocal family are far from proven, and, we know that children from a nuclear family are sometimes abused or neglected.Looking closely at all the evidence I have explored in this essay, I conclude to find that the nuclear family is not universal. Families are simply groupings of people brought together by blood, marriage or some kind of connection. By looking at groups such as the Nayar society and the IK culture, it shows that the nuclear family is not applicable in all circumstances. Finally, in British culture the times are changing and there is a more diverse range of families in our society today.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Words, words, words! Languages are made up of words, and French is no exception. Here are all kinds of French vocabulary lessons, practice ideas, and tips to help you get better at learning and remembering French words. Resources to Learn French Vocabulary The following resources will help you learn, practice, and master French vocabulary. French Vocabulary: Utilize vocabulary lists and lessons on all the basics and topic areas including introductions, food, clothing, family, and more.Mot du Jour: Learn 5 new French words a week with this daily feature.French in English: Many French words and expressions are used in English, but do not always have the same meaning.Cognates: Hundreds of English words mean the same thing in French, but some are false cognates.French Expressions: Idiomatic expressions can really spice up your FrenchHomophones: Many words sound alike but have two or more meanings.French Synonyms: Learn some new ways to say the same old things and master words like bon, non, oui, petit, and trÃ ¨s.Ã Know Your Genders One of the most important things to remember about French nouns is that each one has a gender. While there are a few patterns that let you know what the gender of a particular word is, for most words, its just a matter of memorization. Therefore, the best way to know whether a word is masculine or feminine is to make all your vocabulary lists with an article, so that you learn the gender with the word itself. Always write une chaise or la chaise (chair), rather than just chaise. When you learn the gender as part of the word, youll always know what gender it is later on when you need to use it. This is particularly important with what I call dual-gender nouns. Dozens of French pairs have different meanings depending on whether they are masculine or feminine, so yes, gender really does make a difference. Chance Encounters When reading French, its very likely that youll come across a lot of new vocabulary. While looking up every single word you dont know in the dictionary may disrupt your comprehension of the story, you might not understand anyway without some of those key terms. So you have a few options: Underline the words and look them up laterWrite down the words and look them up laterLook up the words as you go Underlining is the best technique because when you look the words up later, you have the context right there in the case of words with multiple meanings. If thats not an option, try to write down the sentence in your vocabulary list, rather than just the word itself. Once youve looked everything up, read the article again, with or without referring back to your list, to see how much more you understand now. Another option is to look up all the words after each paragraph or each page, rather than waiting until youve read the whole thing.Listening can also offer up a lot of new vocabulary. Again, its a good idea to write down the phrase or sentence so that you have the context to understand the meaning provided. Get a Decent Dictionary If youre still using one of those little pocket dictionaries, you need to seriously consider an upgrade. When it comes to French dictionaries, bigger really is better. Practice French Vocabulary Once youve learned all this new French vocabulary, you need to practice it. The more you practice, the easier it will be for you to find just the right word when speaking and writing, as well as to understand when listening and reading. Some of these activities might seem boring or silly, but the point is simply to get you used to seeing, hearing, and speaking the words - here are some ideas. Say It out Loud When you come across a new word while reading a book, newspaper, or French lesson, say it out loud. Seeing new words is good, but saying them out loud is even better, because it gives you practice both speaking and listening to the sound of the word. Write It Out Spend 10 to 15 minutes every day writing lists of vocabulary. You can work with different themes, such as kitchen items or automotive terms, or just practice words that you continue to have trouble with. After you write them down, say them out loud. Then write them again, say them again, and repeat 5 or 10 times. When you do this, youll see the words, feel what its like to say them, and hear them, all of which will help you the next time you are actually speaking French. Use Flashcards Make a set of flashcards for new vocabulary by writing the French term on one side (along with an article, in the case of nouns) and the English translation on the other. You can also use a flashcard program like Before You Know It. Label Everything Surround yourself with French by labeling your home and office with stickers or post-it notes. Ive also found that putting a post-it on my computer monitor helps me remember those terms that Ive looked up in the dictionary a hundred times but still cant ever seem to remember. Use It in a Sentence When you go over your vocab lists, dont just look at the words - put them into sentences. Try making 3 different sentences with each word, or try to create a paragraph or two using all the new words together. Sing Along Set some vocabulary to a simple tune, like Twinkle Twinkle Little Star or The Itsy Bitsy Spider, and sing it in the shower, in your car on the way to work/school, or while washing the dishes. Mots FlÃ ©chÃ ©s French-style crossword puzzles, mots flÃ ©chÃ ©s, are a great way to challenge your knowledge of French vocabulary.